Job Opening

Posting Title: Legal Consultant in Carbon Markets for Argentina’s Transparency Framework on GHG Inventories and Mitigation Project
Department/Office: United Nations Environment Programme
Duty Station: PANAMA CITY
Posting Period: 05 August 2022 - 25 August 2022
Job Opening Number: 22-United Nations Environment Programme-187853-Consultant
Staffing Exercise N/A
United Nations Core Values: Integrity, Professionalism, Respect for Diversity
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Result of Service

CBIT’s most important contribution will be to strengthen Argentina’s reporting capacities so as to adequately comply with the requirements of the Enhanced Transparency Framework through the new reporting format under the Paris Agreement: the Biennial Transparency Reports (BTR). In order to carry out the activities of Argentina’s CBIT project it requires the hiring of a Legal Expert in Carbon Markets:

¿ The legal framework linked to carbon markets in the NDC and the LTS is analyzed and improved.
¿ The technical qualities of products linked with legal aspects of carbon Markets implementation are ensured.
¿ The transparency of the domestic policy and regulatory framework for carbon markets is enhanced.
¿ The legal framework to link the NGHGI, the NDC and the LTS to carbon markets is improved.
¿ Technical assistance is provided to the NDCC team on issues related to Carbon Markets.
¿ The national legal framework on carbon markets of Argentina is improved.
¿ The legal framework linked to the tracking of mitigation actions from carbon markets is improved.


Elaboration of a work plan and analysis framework.

Hold technical meetings, face-to-face and/or virtual (as appropriate), periodically together with the DNCC teams to agree on next steps, requirements, opportunities, and evidencing progress.

Work closely with the DNCC team in activities related to the National Climate Change Cabinet (GNCC).

Analyze the decisions of COP26 in relation to Internationally Transferable Mitigation Outcomes (ITMO) and emission reductions of Article 6.4. (A6.4ERs), to understand the needs for legal definition of carbon and transfers of results. This analysis must identify the main barriers and risks to avoid third-party claims in light of the implementation of the market mechanisms defined in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement to comply with the NDC and increase ambition.

Survey and analyze current legislation of a subnational, national, regional and international nature regarding the legal nature of carbon units, the legal and financial rights and obligations arising from them and the mechanisms of carbon markets adopted in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.

Identifying options regarding the legal and juridical nature of the carbon units and the titles that derive from it according to comparative and national regulations.

A comparative analysis of cases and good practices for the implementation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement should be carried out, giving special consideration to:

*The spatial scope of the definition, the system of government adopted by the country and its environmental and financial regulatory framework.

*The formal and/or voluntary market and the restrictions between them, if differences exist and apply.

*Detail of the ownership of the carbon unit and the rights, obligations and/or titles that can be derived from it. It should be detailed if there are differences regarding the origin of the financing source and/or the types of projects that these units can generate.

*Detail of whether there are methodologies formally approved by the national and/or subnational authority to certify carbon, both for the formal and/or voluntary market (if applicable), including:

*Survey of experiences of legal frameworks and institutional arrangements regarding carbon ownership and its legal nature, including both regulated and voluntary markets.

*Regional and international identification and analysis of the implementation schemes at the national/subnational level, detailing the policies and/or regulations implemented, established criteria, institutional validation processes, operational tools used for their operation, and the possible applicability of said structures in Argentina;

*Selection and justification of useful cases for Argentina, considering the national and subnational context and circumstances; and the profile of national emissions of greenhouse gases, considering the regulatory frameworks of each sector of the economy;

*Definition of analysis criteria (regulatory framework, institutional arrangements, definitions of carbon, type of regulation, type of title, title transactions, traceability and accounting, registration, and other criteria that the consultant considers pertinent based on the results of the comparative analysis);

Prepare a proposal to implement the carbon legal framework that contains the following information:

*Definition of legal terms of “carbon credit”, “carbon rights”, and ownership of climate change mitigation results”.

*Legal requirements and definitions and guidelines to regulate the ownership of the mitigation results of a project within the framework of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and its national implementation, analyzing and identifying possible ownership options according to the funds that give rise to the project from which the carbon units are derived.;

*Identification of the regulatory gaps at the national/subnational level and recommendations to address them, with respect to the preceding products;

*Proposed criteria for the definition of the national legal framework and the institutional and operational arrangements to approve projects and authorize international transfers of mitigation results;

*Proposed steps and legal instruments to be implemented to ensure the ownership of the mitigation results (i.e. carbon credits), transparency in the validation, approval, authorization, registration and reporting of projects and carbon transfers, in the framework of the Paris Agreement and avoid double counting and double claiming of mitigation results, including a roadmap, step by step.

*Proposed legal and administrative processes to be carried out in a carbon market scheme, for the approval of projects and the authorization of transfers of climate change mitigation results; including process flow chart;

*Proposal on how to address and operationalize these guidelines and criteria in Argentina to regulate carbon markets, considering its current structure and regulations, with a proposal for a legal and organizational structure scheme to address the issue and follow-up;

*Proposed coordination and participation plan with key actors for the implementation of the national legal framework and the operational structure, identifying public and private roles in light of the NDC and the Paris Agreement;

*Identification of key actors accompanied by an analysis of the distribution of socio-environmental costs and benefits, and their perception of carbon markets;

*Proposal of forms and models for the presentation of projects, evaluating project eligibility, project approval and itmos transfer authorizations, and monitoring implementation.

*Analysis and identification of issues related to property rights over the units, differentiated, if applicable, according to the productive sector/activity from which they derive and the particularities of each one, namely : real rights over land for the land use sector, land tenure and real property rights over land, among others.

*Analysis and presentation of tax rights and obligations that could apply to the owner and/or holder of the carbon unit, according to existing national regulations, as well as possible tax obligations, burdens and/or exemptions applicable to the transfer of the units.

*Detailing of regulatory gaps at the national level and recommendations for addressing them, with respect to the preceding products, with special emphasis on recommendations taking into account the federal nature of the country.

Preparation of material to train government representatives (decision makers, officials and national government technicians on the results) on the subject, in coordination with the DNCC.

Providing a final workshop presenting results and conclusions.


Deliverable 1:
Report including analysis framework, workplan and an analysis of COP26 decisions related to ITMOs and A6.4ERs, considering the legal aspects of the decisions, concerning carbon rights definitions and considerations.

Deliverable 2:
Report including analysis of legal definition of carbon and transfers of results applied to carbon units at the subnational level (if any), in the region and at the international level, with a comparative table of cases, by analysis criteria and summary of good practices and recommendations.

Deliverable 3:
Report including the proposal to implement the national carbon legal framework.

Deliverable 4:
Workshop with training material in PowerPoint format. Presentations and Meeting reports in PowerPoint/Word/Pdf format.

Work Location


Expected duration


Duties and Responsibilities

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment.

The UNEP Latin America and the Caribbean Office (LAC OFFICE), located in Panama City, works closely with the 33 countries of the region and its activities are integrated into the Medium-term Strategy and the Programme of Work approved by the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA).

The Argentine Republic ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 (Law No. 24,295), the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 (Law No. 25,438) and the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol in May 2015 (Law No. 27,137). As a signatory of the UNFCCC, the country undertook obligations including the report of the national greenhouse gases inventories, national programs with mitigation and adaptation actions against climate change and any other relevant information regarding the fulfilment of the objective of the UNFCCC. As part of the country’s undertaken obligations, Argentina submitted its First National Communication in July 1997, and a revised communication in October 1999. The Second National Communication was submitted in December 2007 and the Third National Communication and the First Biennial Updated Report (BUR) were both submitted in December 2015. The Second BUR was submitted in August of 2017, the Third BUR was presented to the UNFCCC in November 2019, and the Fourth BUR was presented in December 2021.

In December 2015 during the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21), the Paris Agreement (PA) was adopted; its article No. 2 established the objective of “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels''. In September 2016, Argentina ratified the Paris Agreement (Law No. 27,270), then in December 2019, the National Congress approved the National Law No. 27,520 on Global Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation.

In terms of mitigation, in accordance with decisions 1/CP.19, 1/CP.20, 1/CP.21, 1/CP.24, 4/CMA.1, 9/ CMA.1 and 18/CMA, the Argentine Republic submitted in 2015, its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which was reviewed and updated in 2016, and showed a much higher level of ambition and transparency, than the previous document. Subsequently, in December 2020, Argentina presented its second NDC to the UNFCCC, with an updated version in November 2021, also increasing its ambition in the mitigation and transparency objective. In the second updated NDC, Argentina commits to the absolute and unconditional goal, that covers the entire national territory and all sectors of the economy, of not exceeding the net emission of 349 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) in the year 2030, a goal that is 27.7% more ambitious compared to the first NDC, in 2016.

When it comes to Carbon Markets and its use towards compliance with its NDC, the Argentine Republic has reserved its national position and decision-making in relation to the possible use of any market mechanism established under the Paris Agreement, until negotiations on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement within the framework of the UNFCCC arrive to a conclusion. Until then, any operation that involves emission reduction units achieved in the Argentine territory, both public and private, must be registered and have the express authorization of the National Government and, unless expressly provided otherwise, all emission reductions in the national territory will be counted towards the achievement of the NDC goal. Nonetheless, this statement must be now re-evaluated in light of the results of the last Conference of the Parties (COP) number 26, that took place in November 2022, in Glasgow, Scotland, regarding the rules for the implementation of carbon markets.

To date, Argentina is designing its national strategy for the use of carbon markets and generating technical inputs to plan a possible structure and subsequent operationalization of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. In order to advance in addressing this topic, in December 2021, the National Registry of Climate Change Mitigation Projects was created, under the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development’s Resolution No. 363/2021. Its main objective is to register and systematize projects that reduce anthropogenic emissions or that increase the capture of greenhouse gases in the National territory. However, this Registry comes out as an isolated instrument within the Ministry’s current needs to begin a complete and integrated approach towards market mechanisms.

Following the results of COP26, and the consensus reached on key actions which permitted the conclusion of the Paris rulebook, an important further step in addressing carbon market mechanisms established in the Paris Agreement, is to determine specific eligibility criteria for projects that may fall under the provisions of Article 6.4.

One of the most relevant challenges that the implementation of the Paris Agreement poses on countries is to count with strong Transparency Frameworks. Article No.13 of the PA establishes the need for Parties to implement national robust and transparent reporting and accounting systems to give clarity on action and support while providing clear information to stakeholders. As part of building and enhancing their Transparency Frameworks, Parties of the UNFCCC will progressively implement better tools and institutional practices, many of them not sufficiently developed in the countries. This is especially true for developing countries.

The UNFCCC Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF) demands substantial and immediate progress in the countries’ domestic Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems and strategic de-carbonization planning. This entails moving from often disintegrated and often different-methodological approaches in data management to an integrated and robust system. The success of the Paris Agreement hinges on enhanced transparency of action and support, as a critical foundation to making its bottom-up, country-led approach work, as well as building mutual trust and confidence amongst Parties. Under the framework of Article 6 rules reporting needs to be complied, in consistency with Article 13, concerning the ETF. The national framework needs to be developed to ensure transparency reporting for both.

In this respect, implementation of Article 6 mechanisms entails the need for an adequate accounting system of emissions, including corresponding adjustments to avoid double counting, increasing the Parties necessity to have a transparent national structure and monitoring system.

Rules established by the UNFCCC for the implementation of article 6 of the Paris Agreement, include the need to comply with the additionality criteria. For this reason, and to comply with the Argentine Republic international commitments, including the Enhanced Transparency Framework, the implementation of market mechanisms requires setting up specific criteria to determine the additionality of potential projects. These shall be proved through an exhaustive evaluation that demonstrates the activity would not have occurred in the absence of the incentives generated by the mechanism, to avoid double counting and to reveal the additionality of the mitigation actions that allow compliance with the NDC.

Article 6 mechanisms seek to promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost effect way in the long term while fostering sustainable development. Therefore, the construction of a national structure for implementing these mechanisms, has substantial repercussions in medium and long-term strategies.

The Global Environment Facility - Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (GEF-CBIT) will support the Argentinian government for four years, mainly in strengthening its ETF. This will happen by improving the accuracy, completeness and consistency of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories, and increasing its capacities to domestically track and evaluate mitigation measures and related finance support received and provided, as well as generating the technical inputs needed for medium and long-term planning contributing to the improvement of climate-related decision-making in the country. In order to achieve this objective, Argentina’s GEF-CBIT project, which was approved in July of 2019, is organized into three components:

- National and subnational GHG inventory System.

- Domestic tracking of mitigation actions and support received.

- Medium and long-term projections.

In this sense, the Climate Change Unit of UNEP LAC OFFICE is recruiting a Legal Consultant in Carbon Markets in the form of a consultant to strengthening Argentina’s reporting capacities so as to adequately comply with the requirements of the Enhance Transparency Framework-ETF through the new reporting format under the Paris Agreement: the Biennial Transparency Reports (BTR). The incumbent will work from home and will be supervised by the Climate Ambition and Transparency Coordinator of the Climate Change Unit of the Office for Latin America and the Caribbean of UNEP LAC OFFICE. He or she will work in close collaboration with the National Climate Change Directorate (NCCD) within the Secretariat of Environment, Sustainable Development and Innovation of Argentina’s Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MAyDS).

Qualifications/special skills

Academic Qualifications:

¿ Bachelor´s degree in Law, or similar university degree relevant to carbon markets, climate finance, /or environment and national development (required);

¿ Postgraduate degree in Environmental areas specially related to GHG accounting, climate change policy and/or carbon markets (desirable);


¿ A minimum of 4 years of professional experience in areas related to climate change (required);

¿ Verifiable professional experience of at least 2 years, within the 4 years of professional experience, related to activities within public environmental law (desirable);

¿ Demonstrates understanding of tools used for the estimation of GHG emissions and captures (desirable);

¿ Knowledge of GHG emissions inventories estimation, NDC, LTS and ETF (desirable);

¿ Demonstrates good understanding of Argentina’s national policy related to climate change with particular focus on carbon markets (desirable);

¿ Experience working with, and building partnerships with public and private sector both national and subnational (desirable);


¿ The candidate must be fluent in Spanish, and a confidence level in English is required.


¿ Very good knowledge and understanding of theories, concepts and approaches related to the climate change policy and carbon markets (required);

¿ Very good understanding of the Argentina’s legal framework and infrastructure related to the climate change and carbon markets (required);

¿ Verifiable experience using IT tools such as Microsoft Office (Word, Excel and Powerpoint) and related apps (required);

¿ Verifiable knowledge of environmental equipment related to monitoring the waste sector (desirable);

¿ Knowledge of the standards ISO such as ISO 14001 (desirable);

¿ Confident with numbers and equations, as well as drafting reports with procedures and results (desirable);

¿ Relationship skills with public and private sector officials (desirable);

¿ Demonstrates professional competence and mastery of subject matter; Is conscientious and efficient in meeting commitments, observing deadlines and achieving results; Is motivated by professional rather than personal concerns (desirable);

¿ Shows persistence when faced with difficult problems or challenges; Remains calm in stressful situations; Shows leadership capacities (desirable);

¿ Experience in teamwork, with recognition in the field of their specialty to cooperate with consultants of other specialties (desirable);

¿ Works collaboratively with colleagues to achieve organizational goals; solicits input by genuinely valuing others' ideas and expertise; is willing to learn from others; supports and acts in accordance with final group decision, even when such decisions may not entirely reflect own position; shares credit for team accomplishments and accepts joint responsibility for team shortcomings (desirable);

¿ Develops clear goals that are consistent with agreed strategies; identifies priority activities and assignments; adjusts priorities as required; allocates appropriate amount of time and resources for completing work; foresees risks and allows for contingencies when planning; monitors and adjusts plans and actions as necessary; uses time efficiently (desirable);

No Fee


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